By James W. Redhouse
The Ottoman Language is the main hugely polished department of the nice Turkish tongue, that's spokon, with dialectic adaptations, around the entire breadth, approximately, of the center area of the continent of Asia, impinging into Europe, even, within the Ottoman provinces, and in addition, in Southern Russia, as much as the frontiers of the previous country of Poland. The Ottoman language is, in its grammar and vocabulary, essentially Turkish. It has, although, followed, and keeps a growing number of to undertake, as required, an enormous variety of Arabic, Porsian, and overseas phrases (Greek, Armenian, Slavonic, Hungarian, Italian, French, English, etc.), including using a number of the grammatical principles of the Arabic and Porsian, that are given as Turkish ideas within the following pages, their foundation being in every one case detailed. the nice Turkish language, turkje, Ottoman and non-Ottoman, has been classed, by means of eu writers as one of many " agglutinative" languages ; no longer inflTable of Contents Preface ; be aware on id of Alphabets xii; bankruptcy I Letters and ORTnooiurnr; part I quantity, Order, Forma, and Names of; Letters 1; Synopsis of Arabic, Greek, and Latin; Letters four; ? II Phonetic Values of Letters, Vowel-Points, Orthographic symptoms, Transliteration, Ottoman Euphony 15; bankruptcy IL Ottoman Accidence; part I Nouns sizeable fifty one; ? II Nouns Adjective GS; ? III Numerals seventy four; , IV Pronouns eighty two; vi; desk of contents; part V Demonstratives 8b; ? VI Interrogatives 89; ? VII Relative Pronouns ninety; ? VIIIDerivation of Verbs ninety two; (Table) ninety four; ? IX Conjugation of Verbs ; Moods; Tenses ;; Participles; Verbal Nouns; Gerunds ninety nine; ? X Numbers aiul Tersons a hundred and fifteen ? XI complicated different types of Verbs , 119; ? XII First advanced type a hundred and twenty ? XIII moment ? ? one hundred twenty five; ? XIV 3rd ? 129; ? XV mixed (Turkish) Conjugation 133; ? XVI unfavorable and Impotential Conjugations , a hundred thirty five; ? XVII Dubitative, capability, and Facile Verbs 141; ? XVII I Verb important a hundred and forty four; ?
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Extra resources for A Simplified Grammar of the Ottoman-Turkish Language (Classic Reprint)
Thus the empire opted for coercion rather than concession to deal with the Armenian revolutionary organizations. 61 Although the Hamidiye Regiments were generally successful in integrating the Kurds into the system, they were also key to the erosion of Ottoman legitimacy and the Armenian 38 M. 62 Because of the lack of economic resources, the Ottomans were forced to depend on irregular forces (Circassians and Kurdish tribal militias). Indeed, due to financial constraints, the Ottoman state had to relinquish its monopoly on state violence to these irregular forces, which lacked discipline and ignored the traditional customs of warfare, thus becoming involved in a series of atrocities against the civilian population.
The post-Berlin order redefined sovereignty in terms of the representation of the “collective will” via an ethnically and/or religiously homogeneous population. In order to realize this nation-state goal, the Balkan states became engaged in a series of wars with the sole aim of further homogenization. 35 The origins of the Berlin system were rooted in the London Protocols of 1830, which led to the independence of Greece. This was the first move to link a specific population with the principle of sovereignty, in that the Greek state was regarded as the sole representative of the Greek people.
39 30 M. Hakan Yavuz Nationalists in or outside of the empire came to believe that the imperial system was doomed to collapse. Accordingly, they all sought ways to carve out their own “ethnic” and “homogeneous” territories. 40 Perhaps the greatest loss, however, was the legitimacy of the empire in the eyes of its multiethnic and multi religious populations. Having suffered an erosion of its legitimacy, the Ottoman state pursued a number of strategies to restore and enhance its power. But the lack of economic resources (because the Ottoman finances were under the tight control of European powers) and limited manpower very much dictated limits to the policy options at the disposal of the state.
A Simplified Grammar of the Ottoman-Turkish Language (Classic Reprint) by James W. Redhouse