By Mutsumi Yamamoto
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Extra resources for Agency And Impersonality: Their Linguistic And Cultural Manifestations (Studies in Language Companion Series, Volume 78)
Cambridge Town Crier, 2 January 2004) (12) “SAVED” Proposals to build 1600 homes were described as likely to cause “irreparable environmental damage” in an independent report commissioned by the City Council. The Herald supported a petition organised by Lib Dem Councillors against the plans. Over 3000 people signed the petition, some form [sic] as far away as Canada. “This is an important victory,” said David Howarth. ” Cambridge’s Labour MP, Anne Campbell, has supported the building plans. (The Cambridge Herald, Winter 2003) The two pieces of text above are concerned with the existing authority’s ‘evil’ attempt to develop an enormous housing complex in a lovely green space called Grantchester Meadows, which is famous worldwide for its beauty and tranquillity (cf.
Brown and Levinson’s (1978 and 1987) notion of ‘FTAs’, Agency and Impersonality or face threatening acts, supplements our arguments above and explicates lucidly how first and second person referential expressions can encode strong agency and hence may threaten ones’ ‘faces’. First and second person reference is inherently deictic, in that it makes direct reference to the speech act participants (Anderson & Keenan 1985: 259; Halliday 1985: 291; Lyons 1977: 645), and it is this direct reference that encodes the perception of intentionality and responsibility strongly and thereby may carry face threatening effects.
What is agency? However, Tunmer argues that Piaget’s above definition of ‘animism’ is insufficient, because one of the consequences of this definition is that the ‘life’ concept and concepts related to it (such as ‘intentionality’) are interdependent. Alternatively, Tunmer draws a line between the life concept proper, which is a matter of the semantic feature [± alive], and its derivative concepts, dissecting childhood animism into two aspects: (1) animism per se (attributing ‘life’ itself to inanimate objects) and (2) ‘inferred’ animism (endowing inanimate objects with sentiency) (Tunmer 1985: 990).
Agency And Impersonality: Their Linguistic And Cultural Manifestations (Studies in Language Companion Series, Volume 78) by Mutsumi Yamamoto