By Nicoletta Romeo
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Additional info for Aspect in Burmese: Meaning and function (Studies in Language Companion Series)
In spoken Burmese, in independent clauses used to express a negative statement, the two markers usually co-occur within the verbal complex, as in: (42) = mdkif = bl;/ ae|uf = v r = vkyf nau = la m = lou = nai = bu next = month NEG1 = do = CAN = NEG2 ‘[They] will not be able to do [it] next month’ In literary Burmese and in specific structural environments, the clausal post-VN operator &bl; [bu] ‘NEG2’ is not used: (43) ae|uf = v nau = la next = month r = vkyf = mdkif m = lou = nai NEG1 = do = CAN ‘[They] will not be able to do [it] next month’ If the verbal root is monosyllabic, r& [m] ‘NEG1’ will immediately precede it.
For instance: (27) uGsefaw|f vrf; r = avs|uf = mdkif = aw|h = bl;? tn la m = au = nai = t = bu I road NEG1-walk-CAN-FINAL-NEG2 ‘I can’t walk anymore’ [Yin 1981: 22] The main verb avs|uf [au] ‘walk’ is marked for ability by the nuclear operator &mdkif [nai] ‘CAN’, whose lexical source is the main verb mdkif [nai] ‘win; conquer; prevail’. The clausal operator &aw|h [t] ‘FINAL’ used with negative statements marks the event as no longer occurring at speech time, and it therefore conveys a temporal notion, which typically applies at clausal level.
V-TENSE/IF]. In English, therefore, polarity may influence the order of operators. Hla = POSS house = AT p|tkyf = udk r = zwf = yg = bl;/ saou = ko m = pa = pa = bu book = OBJ NEG1 = read = POL = NEG2 ‘Maung Cho didn’t read the book at Ma Hla’s house’ SENTENCE CLAUSE PERIPHERY CORE ARG ARG NUC PRED NP MC = SUBJ PP MH = POSS house = AT NP V book=OBJ NEG=read=POL=NEG V NUC CORE STA CLAUSE CLAUSE CLAUSE SENTENCE PRAG IF STRUCTURE OF BURMESE INDEPENDENT CLAUSES 19 In (7a) and (7b), the operators are ordered according to their scope over the main verb and they consistently follow it, as it is mostly the case in Burmese.
Aspect in Burmese: Meaning and function (Studies in Language Companion Series) by Nicoletta Romeo