Download e-book for kindle: Atatürk and the modernization of Turkey by Jacob M. Landau

By Jacob M. Landau

ISBN-10: 0865319863

ISBN-13: 9780865319868

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Extra info for Atatürk and the modernization of Turkey

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39 Occidentalists and Turkists, while proclaiming their attachment to Islam (which they would have preferred to see modernized and turkified), called for an end to the intervention of religion in lay affairs. The fight for laicization of the Ottoman state was spearheaded by Abdullah Cevdet, in his review ictihad ("Free Opinion"), which sometimes expressed undisguised anticlerical ism. We find in this journal, which strongly influenced Mustafa Kemal, a large number of proposed reforms which were later implemented under the Republic: suppression of the tekkes and zaviyes (convents and monastic cells), closing of the medreses, latinization of the alphabet, emancipation of women and prohibition of the farJaf (traditional feminine dress), replacement of Islamic headgear by Western hats, and turkification of the Koran and of traditional religious texts.

Mustafa Kemal's 1908 visit to Libya also raises the question of army intervention in politics, common practice in the era of the Young Turks, many of whose leaders were officers on active duty. Himself an Ottoman officer (erkan-i harp Kolajjasz), the Young Turk emissary did indeed intervene in local political matters and party politics. But the stands he took were of a very general, non-partisan nature, aimed at unifying the nation and restoring the state to its former prominence. The political activities of the Young Turk officers may have convinced Mustafa Kemal that the army should stay out of politics; however, Kemalist ideology did consider it to be the guardian of the state, the 20 Rachel Simon defender of Turkey not only from external enemies but also from internal threats against the constitution.

75. 9. ~. Mardin, op. , pp. 296-297. 10. B. Lewis, " ... Dii§iince Aktmlan," op. , p. 17. II. Numerous works have been devoted to the intellectual development of Mustafa Kemal. Recent studies include Enver Ziya Karal, "The Principles of Kemalism," in A. Kazanctgil and E. Ozbudull, op. ; Giirbiiz Tufek~i, Atatiirk'un DUfunce Yapm (The Structure of Ataturk's Thought) (Ankara: Tes-i§, 1981); Artun Unsal, "La bibliothcque politique franpise d' Ataturk," in P. -L. Bacque-Grammont, op. cit. 12. , Heyet-i Temsiliye Tutanaklart (Records of the Representative Committee) (Ankara: Turk Tarih Kurumu, 1975).

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Atatürk and the modernization of Turkey by Jacob M. Landau


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