Mikael Skou Andersen, Paul Ekins's Carbon-Energy Taxation: Lessons from Europe PDF

By Mikael Skou Andersen, Paul Ekins

ISBN-10: 019957068X

ISBN-13: 9780199570683

Whilst taxes are brought on carbon and effort, and the profit is used to minimize different taxes, will a good impression be completed either for the surroundings and for the financial system? In 1990 Finland used to be the 1st kingdom to introduce a tax on CO2. Later, Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, Slovenia, Germany and the united kingdom swimsuit with tax reforms that shifted taxation from labour to carbon and effort. through the years, CO[{2} and effort taxes have steadily been raised, in order that in Europe taxes of greater than 25 billion Euros a 12 months were shifted. This booklet examines carbon-energy taxation intimately and appears at tax moving programmes for decreasing different taxes. It bargains huge research at the foundation of old information and seeks to reply to vital questions for policy-making, similar to: What was once the influence of tax transferring for fiscal functionality and competitiveness? via how a lot have been emissions of CO[{2} lowered? may perhaps energy-intensive industries lower additional down on their gasoline call for or did they unfastened marketplace stocks? To what volume used to be there "leakage" from Europe, in order that construction and CO[{2} emissions have been shifted to different nations or areas with no CO[{2} -abatement coverage? using certain and unique information, together with sector-specific power costs and taxes, in addition to using complex statistical thoughts, equivalent to co-integration research and panel-regression suggestions besides the time-series anticipated macro-economic version E3ME, make this a really accomplished quantity. at the foundation of the teachings discovered in Europe, this quantity shows how carbon-energy taxation may possibly usefully be mixed with emissions buying and selling, and discusses implications for destiny foreign weather coverage, together with how the IPCC innovations for a gentle escalation in carbon cost should be entire whereas fighting carbon leakage.

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Our discussion centres around carbon/energy taxes levied on energy products used for industrial/commercial purposes and heating and not on transport fuels. 2 Denmark Denmark was one of the first countries in Europe to introduce a CO2 tax. The CO2 tax represented an addition to the energy taxes already in place on oil products, coal, and electricity consumption. The CO2 tax was introduced in two phases: in May 1992 it was applied to energy products consumed by households and in January 1993 it was extended to businesses.

1966. ‘Allocative efficiency vs. “X-efficiency” ’. American Economic Review, 56/3: 392–415. McCoy, D. 1997. ‘Reflections on the double dividend debate’, in T. ), Ecotaxation. London: Earthscan, 201–14. Marsh, I. , and Tokarick, S. P. 1996. ‘An assessment of three measures of competitiveness’. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 132/4: 700–22. Nielsen, S. , Pedersen, L. , and Sørensen, P. B. 1995. ‘Environmental policy, pollution, unemployment and endogenous growth’. International Tax and Public Finance, 2: 185–205.

Nevertheless, price competitiveness persists in many low-tech, as well as in some high-tech industries. The question, as Agenor (1997) phrased it, remains therefore how to account for the impact of both price and non-price factors. Addressing non-price factors raises the important question of how these can be identified and measured. One approach, applied by Fagerberg, is to take gross investments in physical capital as a proxy for productive capacity. Another more common approach is to measure both R&D activity and patents.

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Carbon-Energy Taxation: Lessons from Europe by Mikael Skou Andersen, Paul Ekins

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